First to shoot, usually wins : The behavioral economics of a soccer penalty kick.

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Since its introduction in 1978, 30 World Cup games have been decided through a penalty kick shootout, including two World Cup finals.
In this year’s tournament, we’ve already witnessed four shootouts. Croatia narrowly avoided a shootout on Wednesday in its semifinal match with England, winning 2-1 in overtime.
A goalkeeper has to defend 192 square feet of area from a shot taken from 36 feet away at upward of 80 miles per hour.
So it’s not a huge surprise that most penalty kicks result in a goal.
During a shootout, teams alternate between kicks, which creates a discrepancy in the stakes depending on the score of the shootout. For example, if the score is 5-4 after nine shots, the final kicker bears a massive psychological burden that can then cause them to choke.

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