The brain can be divided into three parts: the Reptilian Brain (brainstem and cerebellum), the Paleo-Mammalian Brain (limbic system), and the Neo-Mammalian Brain (cerebral cortex).
The Reptilian Brain is responsible for involuntary functions such as heart rate, breathing and blood pressure, as well as vomiting when it thinks you have been poisoned. The Limbic System is responsible for emotions and instinctive behaviors such as eating, drinking, and sex.
The Cortex is responsible for language, movement, thinking, and sensory processing.
The cerebral cortex is a highly developed part of the brain found in mammals. It is divided into four lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital. The frontal lobe is responsible for personality, executive function, and movement control, while the parietal lobe controls sense of touch. The temporal lobe is responsible for memory and auditory processing, and the occipital lobe is in charge of vision.
The cortex is only two millimeters thick and is composed of wiring, with a homunculus diagram illustrating the amount of cortex dedicated to each body part.